1. This case study was prepared as part of an Asian Development Bank (ADB) special evaluation study on small-scale, freshwater, rural aquaculture development. The study used primary and secondary data and published information to document the human, social, natural, physical, and financial capital available to households involved in the production and consumption of freshwater farmed fish and to identify ways in which the poor can benefit.
The history, biophysical, socioeconomic, and institutional characteristics of Central Luzon are described, followed by accounts of the technology and management of tilapia farming, with detailed profiles of fish farmers and other beneficiaries. Transforming processes are then discussed with respect to markets, institutions, support services, policy and legal instruments, natural resources management, and environmental issues.
2. The following methods were used: (i) review of secondary documents; (ii) semi- structured interviews with key informants from government agencies, nongovernment organizations, academic personnel, small- and large-scale tilapia farmers, input suppliers, and traders; (iii) a survey of 248 households—124 adopters (tilapia farmers) and an equal number of nonadopters, i.e., small-scale rice farmers; and (iv) triangulation. Survey sites were selected using the following criteria: (i) existence of tilapia farming in ponds; (ii) being
representative of small-scale operations;
(iii) stable peace and order conditions that allow unhindered and authorized access; and (iv) inclusion of agroecological zones that typify irrigated and nonirrigated areas, to account for resource variations.
3. Presurvey activities covered site reconnaissance and rapid appraisal, pretesting and revision of the household survey instrument, preparation of the sampling frame, training of field enumerators, and a survey dry run and its feedback. The survey took place in Nueva Ecija and Pampanga provinces on 13 July–23 August 2003. The tilapia farmers were selected randomly from a list of tilapia farms in Central Luzon from the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR).
The nonadopters were drawn randomly from the most recent lists of rice farmers